By The 420 Gardener
Caryophyllene is a terpene that can be found in cannabis and many other plants, such as spices, herbs, and essential oils. It has a spicy and peppery aroma and flavor, and it can act as a cannabinoid by binding to the CB2 receptor in the body. Caryophyllene is not a sativa or an indica, but it can be present in both types of cannabis strains and hybrids. Caryophyllene is used as a natural food additive and has various effects and benefits when ingested with other cannabinoids and terpenes.
What is caryophyllene?
Caryophyllene is a terpene that belongs to the class of sesquiterpenes, which are larger molecules than monoterpenes like myrcene and limonene. Caryophyllene has a unique molecular structure that contains a cyclobutane ring, something rare in nature and not found in any other known cannabis terpene. This ring gives caryophyllene its distinctive spicy and woody aroma, similar to black pepper, cloves, and cinnamon.
Caryophyllene is also known as beta-caryophyllene or BCP, and it can be found in many plants besides cannabis, such as hops, basil, oregano, rosemary, cloves, black pepper, and cinnamon. Caryophyllene is sometimes used as a flavoring agent in food, given its peppery taste. It is also found in some detergents and topical skin products.
How does caryophyllene interact with the endocannabinoid system?
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex network of receptors, enzymes, and molecules that regulate various physiological processes in the body, such as mood, pain, inflammation, appetite, memory, and immune function. The ECS consists of two major types of receptors: CB1 and CB2. CB1 receptors are mainly located in the brain and central nervous system, while CB2 receptors are mostly found in the peripheral organs and tissues.
Cannabinoids are compounds that can interact with the ECS by binding to or modulating the activity of these receptors. The most well-known cannabinoids are THC and CBD, which are produced by the cannabis plant. However, there are also endocannabinoids, which are produced by our own body, such as anandamide and 2-AG. In addition, there are phytocannabinoids, which are produced by other plants besides cannabis, such as echinacea and kava.
Terpenes are aromatic compounds that give cannabis and other plants their distinctive smells and flavors. Terpenes can also interact with the ECS by enhancing or altering the effects of cannabinoids. This is known as the entourage effect or the synergy effect.
Caryophyllene is unique among terpenes because it is the only one that has the ability to directly activate a cannabinoid receptor, especially CB2 receptors. This means that it can trigger some of the same health benefits associated with activating those receptors, such as reducing inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, and addiction.
What are the benefits of caryophyllene?
Caryophyllene has been shown to have various effects and benefits when ingested with other cannabinoids and terpenes. Some of these include:
- Anti-inflammatory: Caryophyllene can reduce inflammation by activating CB2 receptors and inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines. This can help with conditions such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases.
- Analgesic: Caryophyllene can relieve pain by activating CB2 receptors and modulating opioid receptors. This can help with conditions such as neuropathic pain, chronic pain, and cancer pain.
- Anxiolytic: Caryophyllene can reduce anxiety by activating CB2 receptors and increasing endorphin levels. This can help with conditions such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), social anxiety disorder (SAD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
- Antidepressant: Caryophyllene can improve mood by activating CB2 receptors and increasing serotonin levels. This can help with conditions such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and dysthymia.
- Anti-addictive: Caryophyllene can reduce craving and withdrawal symptoms by activating CB2 receptors and modulating dopamine levels. This can help with conditions such as alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, opioid dependence, and cocaine dependence.
- Antioxidant: Caryophyllene can protect cells from oxidative stress by scavenging free radicals and enhancing glutathione levels. This can help with conditions such as aging, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases.
- Antimicrobial: Caryophyllene can inhibit the growth of bacteria, fungi, and viruses by disrupting their cell membranes and interfering with their metabolic pathways. This can help with conditions such as infections, acne, and candidiasis.
- Anti-cancer: Caryophyllene can induce apoptosis (cell death) and inhibit angiogenesis (blood vessel formation) in cancer cells by activating CB2 receptors and modulating various signaling pathways. This can help with conditions such as breast cancer, prostate cancer, colon cancer, and skin cancer.
What are some high-caryophyllene cannabis strains?
Caryophyllene is a common and often abundant terpene found in cannabis. Its distinctive flavor contributes to the spiciness of some strains and can be found in high amounts in some indica, sativa, and hybrid strains. Some strains with a higher-than-average amount of caryophyllene include:
- GSC: Also known as Girl Scout Cookies, this hybrid strain is a cross between OG Kush and Durban Poison. It has a sweet and earthy aroma with hints of mint and chocolate. It can produce a balanced high that is euphoric, relaxing, and creative. It can also help with pain, stress, nausea, and appetite loss.
- Bubba Kush: This indica strain is a descendant of OG Kush and has a pungent and earthy aroma with notes of coffee and chocolate. It can produce a sedating and calming high that is ideal for nighttime use. It can also help with insomnia, pain, stress, and muscle spasms.
- Sour Diesel: This sativa strain is a cross between Chemdog and Super Skunk and has a diesel-like aroma with hints of citrus and pine. It can produce an energizing and uplifting high that is cerebral, creative, and euphoric. It can also help with depression, fatigue, pain, and stress.
- Chemdog: This hybrid strain is a cross between OG Kush and Sour Diesel and has a diesel-like aroma with notes of lemon and pine. It can produce a potent high that is cerebral, euphoric, and relaxing. It can also help with pain, stress, anxiety, and nausea.
- Candyland: This sativa-dominant hybrid strain is a cross between Granddaddy Purple and Platinum Cookies. It has a sweet and fruity aroma with hints of berry and honey. It can produce a happy and uplifting high that is social, creative, and energetic. It can also help with depression, fatigue, pain, and headaches.
In A Blunt Roll:
Caryophyllene is a terpene that can be found in cannabis and many other plants. It has a spicy and peppery aroma and flavor, and it can act as a cannabinoid by binding to the CB2 receptor in the body. Caryophyllene has various effects and benefits when ingested with other cannabinoids and terpenes, such as reducing inflammation, pain, anxiety, depression, addiction, oxidative stress, microbial growth, and cancer growth. Caryophyllene can be found in high amounts in some cannabis strains that have a spicy and musky profile.
Disclaimer: This article is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease or condition. Consult your doctor before using any cannabis product or supplement. The statements in this article have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or any other regulatory authority.